Final Exam in Educ 115. YOU CAN FINISH “STRONG”!

University of makati, Graduate school, college of educationCOLLEGE OF EDUCATION

Graduate Studies

MASTER OF ARTS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

= FINAL EXAMINATION  =

1.  Identify the “ONE BIG MESSAGE/CONCEPT” that we have to “look-into” in the following major topics that we have discussed:

1.1  The Situation & Rights of Filipino Children & Adolescent Learners [10 pts]

1.2  The  Issues on Human Development considering the Developmental Tasks at Various Stages [10 pts]

1.3 The Developmental Theories of:  [20 pts]

a.  Sigmund Freud [Psychoanalytic Theory]

b.  Jean Piaget [Cognitive Development]

c.  Eric Erikson [Psycho-Social Theory of Development]

d.  Lawrence Kohlberg [Moral Development]

2.  What is there in CHILD DEVELOPMENT that needs ORGANIZATION & MANAGEMENT?

Come up with your own “short article/write-up” on this, Considering those Theories, specially the Roles of Family and Teachers, together with some Strategic Interventions in Child Development…plus your other concerns that you want to emphasize that would make your article “significant” to your readers.  [any style/approach will do. feel free to speak your mind]  = 50 pts

Give it a creative “title” too, to initially stimulate & excite your readers! [10 pts]

GOD IS WITH YOU IN THIS Ma’am :). 

YOU CAN FINISH “STRONG”!

Thank you so much for STRIVING TO GIVE YOUR BEST. 

God will bless you more Ma’am, I’m proud of YOU! 🙂

 

 

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107 thoughts on “Final Exam in Educ 115. YOU CAN FINISH “STRONG”!”

  1. 1.The Situation & Rights of Filipino Children & Adolescent learner

    The Philippines is making significant progress in the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Still, poverty coupled with political violence pose serious challenges to children. The total number of poor Filipino families is estimated at 27 per cent.

    The country has a high number of street children. According to UNICEF estimates approximately 250 000 children are living on the streets and about 3,7 million children are working. Human trafficking is a serious problem in the Philippines. Between 60 000 and 100 000 children are trafficked annually, most of them girls. There are also reports that children, sometimes as young as 11 years old, have been recruited by armed rebel movements, such as the New People’s Army, the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, and the Abu Sayyaf Group, to serve as combatants, spies, guards, cooks or medics. According to 2005 estimates, up to 13 per cent of the armed group MILF’s 10,000 members were children. There are also a number of reported cases of torture, inhuman and degrading treatment of children, particularly of children in detention. Many children below the age of 18 are placed with adults in detention.
    Children have rights. They are human being who deserve respect and to be treated as equal. There are some things they must have and be able to do as children. They have needs that people in their family, school and community must be able to provide. They need parents and family members who care about and for them. They also need time and places to play with other children. They need someone who will listen and ask them what they think especially when it affects them. They also need to learn and to know about the world in a way that they understand.
    Children not only have rights but they also have responsibilities especially the adolescent learners. They should know their responsibilities at home, in school and in their communities. We as adults also teach them to grow in peace, freedom and love so they can also teach others to be peaceful when they grow up.

    2. The Issues on Human Development considering the Developmental Tasks at Various Stages

    Parents should be responsible in taking cared of the baby in the womb of the mother. The mother should take care of herself for the baby to be healthy. Parents should have sufficient resources to meet their family’s basic needs for housing, child care, food, health care..etc. Lacking of these is one risk factor that affects the development of a child. With the family as the primary setting for child development from birth through childhood and adolescence, parent-child relationship is very important.It influences the mental, emotional, and behavioral aspects of a child.
    Teachers also have a part in developing children because we also have the power to break or to make them whole. We are the missing piece in the lives of these children so we should give our best not only by providing them knowledge but also to let them feel that they are loved and cared. Let them understand that they are important and accepted their uniqueness. Helping them also to develop their potentials and strength and understanding their weaknesses.
    In school, students’ relationships with their peers and teachers and the social climate in the classroom have a powerful effect on their development of mental, emotional, and behavioral problems as well as their development of age-appropriate competencies. Programs promoting classroom and school procedures that encourage prosocial behavior, academic achievement, or increased positive bonding to school have important implications for children’s healthy development.
    Community has also a part in developing children. They should grow in a place with their neighbors in peace, freedom and love.
    Family, school, teacher, community, culture and even the government are all factors of developing these children. We must be united in doing our responsibilities in developing them. We are the missing pieces in the children’s lives. We should handle them carefully for we might break them or make them whole.

    Sigmund Freud [Psychoanalytic Theory]

    Psychoanalytic theory refers to the definition of personality organization and the dynamics of personality development that underlie and guide the psychoanalytic and psychodynamic psychotherapy, called psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology. The structure of personality consist of three parts: id, ego, and superego. The theory emphasizes the importance of childhood experiences. It initiated and addressed the importance of the unconscious, sexual and aggressive drives that make-up the majority of all human beings’ personalities. The approach also explains defense mechanisms and why every individual reacts differently to similar situations. Our personality is also determined by the way we resolve conflicts between sources of pleasure and the demands of reality.

    Jean Piaget [Cognitive Development]

    It is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence. Piaget believed that the child plays is vital and an active role to growth of intelligence and learns by doing more than learning. The theory of intellectual development involves focuses on reasoning, believing, remembering and perceiving. Jean Piaget also emphasized that “the more that we experience, the more that we learn.”

    Eric Erikson [Psycho-Social Theory of Development]

    Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development, as articulated by Erik Erikson, explain eight stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. In each stage, the person confronts, and hopefully masters, new challenges. Each stage builds upon the successful completion of earlier stages. The challenges of stages not successfully completed may be expected to reappear as problems in the future.

    Lawrence Kohlberg [Moral Development]

    The Theory of Moral Development is a very interesting subject. This theory made us understand that morality starts from the early childhood years and can be affected by several factors.Morality can be developed either negatively or positively, depending on how an individual accomplishes the tasks before him during each stage of moral development across his lifespan. This theory also finds out the reasons why children think that the character is morally right or not. The levels of moral development are preconventioal, conventional and postconventional.

    2. What is there in CHILD DEVELOPMENT that needs ORGANIZATION & MANAGEMENT?

    Before conception, the parents should plan to have a baby because some couple, maybe live-in or boyfriends did not plan for a baby. They are not ready. This is one factor that may affect the child’s development. Couple is not prepared for the responsibilities of being parents physically, mentally, emotionally and financially. Some could not give the needs of their child like food, clothing, shelter and education. The child become malnourish, have low self-esteem, have lower grades, envious.
    The learning and attitude of a child are also important. Parents and teachers joined to guide and mold the child into a person of good attitude, motivated to learn and living a valued life. Parents may also attend parenting programs and seminars to educate them on how to manage their children especially when problems come in their children’s lives.
    Proverbs quoted that “Teach a child in the way he should go and when he is old he will not depart from it.” Another said that the child only follows what you do not what you say. If you’ve been a good or bad example to him he will only imitate what he sees in you. We are preparing, molding, and guiding the child’s soul. That is why organization and management in child development is very important because whatever you give to the child he will carry it when he grow up and pass these to the next generation. The child’s physical, mental, emotional, social, psychological and spiritual aspects that needs to manage and organize.

    4. Short Article/Write Up

    Come up with your own “short article/write-up” on this, Considering those Theories, specially the Roles of Family and Teachers, together with some Strategic Interventions in Child Development…plus your other concerns that you want to emphasize that would make your article “significant” to your readers. [any style/approach will do. feel free to speak your mind]

    “Sige, I-Push Mo Yan!”

    Bago ka pa man inuluwal
    Ikaw na ay espesyal
    Sa iyong mga magulang
    Ikaw ay kinasabikan

    Dumating ka sa buhay
    Ng iyong ama’t inang kaagapay
    Sa bawat paglaki at pag-unlad
    Sila’y handang sumubaybay

    Minahal at inalagaan
    Ibinigay ang pangangailangan
    Damit, pagkain at tahanan
    Di ka kinalimutan

    Hinayaang umunlad sa mga kakayahan
    Iyong kalooban ay tatagan
    Naririto lang sa iyong likuran
    At nagsasabing”sige, ipush mo yan!”

    Ang iyong guro ang kaagapay
    Upang ikaw ay maging matagumpay
    Itinuro ang lahat ng walang humpay
    Dahil minanahal kang tunay

    Limitasyon ay wag kalimutan
    Kapag kasama mga kaibigan
    Sabay sa agos ng kabataan
    Sarili at buhay ay ingatan

    Di naman sila galit
    Tinutuwid ka man sa gawing mali
    Nais lang baguhin ang ugali
    Nang buhay mo ay bumuti

    Payo sa iyo ay pakinggan
    Ng iyong mahal na guro’t magulang
    Handa sila na ikaw ay tulungan
    Ano man ang pinagdadaanan

    Tinanggap ang iyong kahinaan
    Maging ang iyong kakulangan
    Maging ang iyong kaibahan
    Mahalaga ka, yan ang dahilan

    Buhay ngayon ay bigyang kaayusan
    Planuhin at paghandaan
    Upang buhay sa nakaraan
    Ay di na pagsisihan

    Ang Diyos sa Kanyang kabutihan
    Siya ay pasalamatan
    Sa lahat ng iyong pinagdaanan
    Siya ang mapapurihan

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  2. 1.1 The Situation & Rights of Filipino Children & Adolescent Learners [10 pts]
    According to the ( Human Rights Education Associates) Children’s rights cover four main aspects of a child’s life: the right to survive; the right to develop; the right to be protected from harm, and the right to participate.
    My heart felt bad when I saw children nowadays who are working instead of attending to the school. They are too young to accept those situations with a greater responsibility. In connection with that they have the right to be educated. As a mentor I do believed that every child is a gift from god they are innocent to know what is right and wrong ,that’s why it is our responsibility to teach and tell them in a correct way. We are the model, so we should do and begin it in ourselves the values and the proper way on how we interact to the society. For instance in our school we have a adoptees ” Adopt A Child Program” which is one of our intervention to assists child who have potentials, achievers but then they are financially unstable we help them by giving food, money, support and extra time to nurture them academically and emotionally. I do believed that this is a good way or a good practice for the benefits of the children. SOmeday, somehow… According to Jose Rizal ” Ang mga kabataan ay Pag-asa ng Bayan” If we help one another to do our obligation as teacher and tie up with a responsible parents we will having this kids in the near future and a good citizen and leaders of our country.

    1.2 The Issues on Human Development considering the Developmental Tasks at Various Stages [10 pts]
    ” Learning by doing” Significant others like us mentors has a greater impact to our students, what we can to is to teach them the best that we can. If a children has its harmonious relationship to their parents they can be a good citizen someday. Considering the developmental tasks at each stage the children undergo several experienced which is a way to motivate them to be successful in life. But then nowadays children learn by their own potentials why… Because others don’t have enough time to bond with their family members. They are easily influence by media where in they are keep on relaying to net, sometimes they just copy and paste instead of reading and write their own ideas. What i observed is that there is a fast changing, each human has it’s own control to adopt the changing world.
    1.3 The Developmental Theories of: [20 pts]
    Sigmund Freud [Psychoanalytic Theory]
    Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality implicated the structure of the mind, namely the id, ego, and superego, and how conflicts among these constituent parts are resolved in shaping human personality.

    The three parts to the personality according to Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory. These are the id, superego, and ego. The id is the first to develop, the ego is second, and the superego is the last to develop.
    The id is the biological component of the personality and includes your instincts. The id operates in our unconscious mind. It is like the little devil sitting on the cartoon character’s shoulder that is always selfish and needy. Everything you do is for pleasure. In connection with that No matter the consequence is, as long as you intend to do it contended yourself.
    Then there is the superego. The superego exists in all three levels of consciousness. The superego is like the little angel. It is always concerned with what is socially acceptable. The superego pushes you to obtain the ego ideal, or your view of what is right. It also represents your conscience, or your view of what is considered to be wrong. For instance, you will not do anything that can harm you or blame yourself later on.
    The ego operates in your preconscious and conscious mind. The ego is the part of the personality that makes your decisions; this is like the cartoon character in the example. The ego is in the middle, makes the decision, and faces the consequences.
    b. Jean Piaget [Cognitive Development]
    Piaget’s stage theory describes the cognitive development of children. Cognitive development involves changes in cognitive process and abilities. In Piaget’s view, early cognitive development involves processes based upon actions and later progresses into changes in mental operations.
    In line with this a certain task needs the child developed in every stages. We will considered this theory as a guide how to handle our students to be aware it regards with their skills and potentials. It is really hard for the student to teach them which is not suitable with their cognitive skills, but then we can guide them accordingly.

    c. Eric Erikson [Psycho-Social Theory of Development]
    Our personality traits come in opposites. We think of ourselves as optimistic or pessimistic, independent or dependent, emotional or unemotional, adventurous or cautious, leader or follower, aggressive or passive. Many of these are inborn temperament traits, but other characteristics, such as feeling either competent or inferior, appear to be learned, based on the challenges and support we receive in growing up.
    Based on the Erik Erickson theories he believed that a sense of competence motivates behaviors and actions. Each stage is concerned with becoming competent in an area of life. What we are now, what we do i do believed it is also connected and deeply rooted based on our stages what we experienced.
    The formation of identity is something that begins in childhood and becomes particularly important during adolescence, but it is a process that continues throughout life. Our personal identity gives each of us an integrated and cohesive sense of self that endures and continues to grow as we age.
    d. Lawrence Kohlberg [Moral Development]
    After obtaining hundreds of responses to moral dilemmas, one groundbreaking cognitive-developmental psychologist, Lawrence Kohlberg, proposed that the development of moral reasoning is characterized by a sequence of six stages grouped into three general levels of morality: Pre-conventional people make decisions based on what is best for themselves, without regard for others’ needs or feelings. For instance, in a school set up children nowadays keep on bullying his/her classmate without thinking others feelings., Conventional People make decisions based on what actions will please others, especially authority figures and other individuals with high status (e.g., teachers, popular peers). We are now aware what is happening in the society we involved ourselves to the norm of the society, and post-conventional People recognize that rules represent agreements among many individuals about appropriate behavior. In this stage people may react to the issues, maintain general social order and know their individual rights and protection.
    What is there in CHILD DEVELOPMENT that needs ORGANIZATION & MANAGEMENT?
    Children nowadays are very intuits to learn, discover, and apply what they want to know, they are very observant to the real situation, they have lots of questions and clueless sometimes what is happening to the world, but then we are one of the significant others of their lives, We can easily teach students if we starts the good things in ourselves. Let’s looked back and reflect what are things we considered as our good memories that help a lot to become what we are today. Let nourish ourselves with positive outlook in life, concentrate whatever we do, focus our goal and analyzed all situations before we decide. According to the source that I read ” A child is a mirror of a family” what the children learn from home it reflect to his/her attitudes. A family plays important role to a child, in the family we learn how can we adopt to the reality, how can we interact with others and be ourselves. Moreover the best way to have a happy family is to connect each other by means of bible sharing, tapping each member to lean on, giving extra time ,effort and of course presence most especially to the situations need most.
    In line with this in a school set up it is necessary to know your students profile, believing all student can learn,nurturing them with love and wisdom, give them extraordinary care and be part of their lives which is remarkable in their minds. Last, Teacher’s Day, I was surprised because my previous students greeted me and says ” Hindi ka namin, nakakalimutan Ma’am” A simple sayings but have a powerful meaning which make me cry. In our school we have a “Adopt a school Program” each teachers has adoptees an intervention program to guide and help children which has potentials. Our goal is to assist him/her through academic skills, financially assistance and love them. Another program in our school we have this ” Galing Mo Kids Program” tie up with Hans On Manila, their goal is to enhance the learning potential of students in four various subject areas such as: Science, Math, English and Civics; to enhance their leadership skills, creativity and cognitive skills; and to develop values such as love for the country, honesty and integrity, through the continuous mentoring of volunteers and proactive activities. I’m lucky to be part of it as a teacher coordinator. Then we have also ANGELS ( Agent of New Generation Environment Leaders and Savior/ PAMS ( Pembo Angels Magic Spot) which aims is to maintain the cleanliness of each zone to our baranggay in this program the child become nature lover. Project Feed/ BOWLS ( Brain Operates With Loaded Stomach) / OMG ( Oh, My Gulay) in order to cope up with the lessons what we do is to feed the malnourished students.
    There are many ways to help children to grow well and be feel they loved, It is a matter of acceptance with a big responsibility to mold them with flying colors. We have lots of ideas, theories, strategies but then the best way we can do is to “apply” today, tomorrow and continuously like a cycle.

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  3. 1.2 The Issues on Human Development considering the Developmental Tasks at Various Stages

    Care, protection, and love should be given to everyone of us. From the moment of our existence inside the womb of our mother until to our last breathe in this world.

    The development of every human undergoes developmental task that needs to be experienced for the totality of a person. Development doesn’t focus on the physical aspect itself but also to all aspects of living.

    The developmental theories give big help for us educators to identify what action we should make in upbringing our learners.

    1.3 The Developmental Theories of:

    a. Sigmund Freud [Psychoanalytic Theory]
    Freud believed that a single motive governs human behavior — the desire to satisfy biological needs and thereby discharge tension. He defined stages of development in terms of the organs he thought were used to discharge tension at that age. From birth to adulthood, a child develops through these stages in sequence: oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital. Failure to experience gratification for basic drives during a given stage could cause an individual to become “fixated” in that stage, stuck forever in that particular psychological mode.

    This theory will help educators to balance the needs of the learners. And it is very much useful if parents will inform about this theory. So that they will realize that their child needs to satisfy something in each stages so that fixation will not happen.

    The id, ego, and superego will also help us identify what we think and what we do in everyday lives. Conscience should always work in our lives.

    b. Jean Piaget [Cognitive Development]

    The thinking of a child is concrete. And it develops more as he grows older. The ability of reasoning also develops as the day goes by.
    The old one is smarter than the child but sometimes there are some instances that the only one who can answer our question is the young one. They can give the answer and reason that we can’t imagine that they can think of. That’s the essence of being a child, to imagine beyond what is existing.

    c. Eric Erikson [Psycho-Social Theory of Development]

    Erikson had some thing to say about the interaction of generations, which he called mutuality. Freud had made it abundantly clear that a child’s parents influence his or her development.

    Erikson viewed adolescence as a time of turmoil and stress. He thought that the turmoil resulted from an identity crisis rather than a struggle between the id and ego. He saw adolescence as a necessary and productive period — as a time of life when one works to form one’s own identity.

    d. Lawrence Kohlberg [Moral Development]

    Kohlberg’s stages of moral development are based on the assumption that humans are inherently communicative, capable of reason, and possess a desire to understand others and the world around them. The stages of this model relate to the qualitative moral reasoning adopted by individuals, and so do not translate directly into praise or blame of any individual’s actions or character.

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  4. 1.3 C. Eric Erickson (Psycho-social Theory of Development)
    —> As articulated by Erickson, explain eight stages through which healthy developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood.
    In each stage, the person confronts and hopefully masters, new challenges. Each stage builds upon yhe successful completion of earlier stages. The challenges of stages not successfully completed may be expected to reappear as problems in the future.

    However, mastery of a stage is not required to advance to the next stage. Each stage is characterized by s psychosocial crisis of these two conflicting forces. If an individual does indeed successfully reconcile these forces, he or she emerges from the stage with the corresponding virtue. For example, if an infant enters into the toddler stage (autonomy vs. Shame and doubt) with more trust than mistrust, he or she carries the virtue of hope into the remaining life stages.

    So, the message of this theory is that the child must deal with right manner with the psychosocial crisis in each stages, for him to develop the virtues he needs to have in the future.

    And how he will make a man out of a boy? How will he build trust, to have an initiative, to have his own identity, or to have integrity if we, the people surrounded them will not let them do what they must do, or to feel what they must feel. If we continue to put them inside a box or not letting them experience thing they must experience, they will not be successful in facing those psychosocial stages and its crisis. And they can’t form a positive values or their virtues in life.

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  5. What is there in child’s development that needs organization and management?
    Life begins from the time of conception, therefore expectant mothers must start nurturing the unborn from the time of its conception , growth and development. If expectant mothers would like to ensure that the unborn is healthy and normal, necessary precautions must be considered.
    Likewise, it is important that the pregnant woman must see her OB gynaecologist for regular
    check -up.

    To protect the unborn from contracting diseases, expectant mother must take care of her health by eating nutritious food as well as ensuring that she is never exposed to stress nor strenuous activities. There are pregnant women who used to talk to their babies while inside the womb. Educating the baby starts while it is still in the womb. This somehow this will not only help develop a strong attachment between mother and child likewise the baby will feel welcome and secured.

    Since mother and child are connected through the umbilical cord whatever nourishment the mother receives is then pass to the child, whatever emotion the mother is experiencing it is also felt by the baby. Somehow this will affect the baby emotionally and psychologically.

    Genes play an important role in contributing to the cognitive development of the baby. But a greater part of cognitive development depends upon on how the baby was monitored by the parents while the child was undergoing the different stages of its human development.

    Most parents are not knowledgeable about this, for this reason, most babies grow unmonitored by their parents. Especially nowadays that both parents need to work to cope with the high cost of living. Babies are then left under the custody of their yayas. The crucial stage in the life of the baby is the stage of the development of trust and toilet training. The mental, emotional, physical and psychological development of these babies are important aspects which all parents must ensure to be healthy and normal. Early detection of any abnormalities on these aspects must be given an abrupt attention and make the necessary intervention before everything is late.

    The toddler stage is also very important, at this stage kids should have already learned so many things. Give them the freedom to explore around their world, Provide them with happy experiences in life. They should have enjoyed association with others and somehow have developed some sense of confidence.

    Spiritual values must have been inculcated by parents to their children. There is a saying that“ the family that prays together stays together”. Therefore this is vital for the child to acquire good moral values. Parents must not also forget to lead by setting good example to their kids. It is easier for children to learn good values if they see it being done by their parents, because kids are shrewd and great imitators.

    Raising children nowadays is really difficult because of the many bad influence in our surrounding. Children are not only confined in the house, they need to associate with others. Parents must then be vigilant in knowing who are their kids’ friends.
    At home kids have close friends, and constant associations. These are their gadgets, television and tablets. Parental guidance is necessary to avoid destruction of good morals which parents have painstakingly inculcated on their kids. Friends outside of the house are also threat to the morals of their children. Therefore the role of the parents do not stop there. Parents must be there constantly by the side of their children to protect them, nurture them even until the stage of maturity. Only death can break the bond of parent and child responsibility.

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  6. 2. What is there in CHILD DEVELOPMENT that needs ORGANIZATION and MANAGEMENT?

    “Child’s best Teacher,Teaches best to Child ”
    (The parent and school teacher)
    The child’s character development starts at home. Each family member should try to make the home a wholesome and harmonious place to live in.This is because whatever happens at home greatly influences the child’s development. Attachment to the home and strong family ties should be encouraged.
    The best teacher at home-the parents has a vital role for the child’s development.Teaching them the organization skills that are necessary for lifelong success and productivity is enormously valuable.A child with solid organization skills can manage his daily responsibilities and has the ability to plan ahead.
    Parents must set a strong example so that children can learn from and model these skills.
    At school are the best teachers who are the second parent of the child.At six to eight hours a day,five days a week. teachers are poised to become one of the most influential people in student’s life.
    Teachers do not only watch students grow-they help them grow.As a teacher we show to students how to become independent and form their own relationships with whom we carefully guide them.
    Though a teacher’s influence on the social sphere of school lessens as students matures,those early lessons still have an effect on how they will interact with others in the future.
    Both parents and teachers must work together to guide every child.

    =THANK YOU LORD =

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      1. Thank You so much ma’am Gail for giving me an opportunity to know myself more.I learned a lot from you…may God bless you and your Family(“,)

        Like

  7. mam salamat po for inspiring me to make a novel, grabe po for the first time in my life na experience kong mag trying hard na maging journalist… ang alam ko Home economics major ako… thanks ginawa mo kong cooking novelist… mahirap palang mag edit pag na send na sorry na lang po. God Bless and more power po. Yan na po ang last part ng test ko. thanks again… bye po.

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  8. 1.3. D. Lawrence Kohlberg (Moral Development)
    —> The theory holds that moral reasoning, the basis of ethical behavior, has six identifiable developmental stages, each more adequate at responding to moral dilemmas than its predecessor. Kohlberg followed the DEVELOPMENT OF MORAL JUDGEMENT far beyond the ages studied earlier by Piaget.

    Expanding on Piaget’s work, Kohlberg determined that the process of moral development was principally concerned with justice, and that it continued throughout the individual’s lifetime, a notion that spawned dialogue on the philosophical implications of such research.

    In this study/theory, the child is learning already things about morality. On how they will react on certain situation pr how they will use their moral judgement. An example of obedience and punishment driven morality would be a child refusing to do something because it is wrong and that the consequences could result in punishment. For example, a child’s friend tries to dare the child to cut classes, the child would apply obedience and punishment driven morality by refusing not to cut classes bec. He would get punished.

    So, it only means that, we as a teacher, or parents, we must also be a good model to them, when we talk about morality and be consistent enough with what we say or do, so that they will follow whatever we will tell them.

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  9. The Situation & Rights of Filipino Children & Adolescent Learners

    More children in the Philippines are becoming victims of abuse, violence and exploitation. In addition, the country lacks a national child protection monitoring and reporting system to determine the exact number of children in need of special protection, such as victims of abuse, violence and exploitation.
    Despite recent economic gains, 36.8 per cent of the population still lives in poverty, with 47.5 per cent living on less than US$ 2 per day. Poverty has pushed many children to work to fend for their families, which usually places them in situations of abuse and exploitation. According to a 2009 study by the National Statistical Coordination Board, at least 4 in 10 Filipino children live in poverty. It noted that poverty is highest among children of fisher folk, farmers, migrants and workers in the informal sector.
    Children affected by armed conflict is also a concern. It is estimated that 30,000–50,000 children in the Philippines are displaced every year as a result of armed conflict.
    There are many situations and issues that we read or heard about the rights of Filipino children that it seems too worst.Violence against children is all too often unseen, unheard and underreported. “In every country, in every culture, there is violence against children,” according to UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake. “Whenever and wherever children are harmed, our outrage and anger must be seen and heard.
    Violence against children is everywhere. It happens in all countries, at all levels of society. Despite its global prevalence, violence against children all too often remains invisible because it’s hidden behind closed doors or because people turn a blind eye to it.

    Every child everywhere has the right to be protected from all forms of violence. As a teacher we have a big responsibilities for them, We must advocate for the protection of children’s rights, help meet their basic needs, and expand their opportunities to reach their full potential.
    Help educate families to prevent abuse,( involve them in parenting seminar) violence and exploitation, and enable children-at-risk, In public school we do the “adapt a child”, to protect
    Develop peace advocates among children in conflict areas and provide them with opportunities to express themselves.

    The Issues on Human Development considering the Developmental Tasks at Various Stages

    Human development as “the process of enlarging people’s choices”, by allowing them to “lead a long and healthy life, to be educated, to enjoy a decent standard of living”, as well as “political freedom, other guaranteed human rights and various ingredients of self-respect.” Kaya sabi ng matatanda mag-aral kang mabuti para magkaroon ka ng magandang buhay. They insist these words at your young age.
    Development concerns expanding the choices people have, to lead lives that they value, and improving the human condition so that people have the chance to lead full lives.
    Thus, human development is about much more than economic growth, which is only a means of enlarging people’s choices.
    Fundamental to enlarging these choices is building human capabilities —the range of things that people can do or be in life. Capabilities are “the substantive freedoms [a person] enjoys to lead the kind of life [they have] reason to value. Human development disperses the concentration of the distribution of goods and services that underprivileged people need and center its ideas on human decisions.
    By investing in people, we enable growth and empower people to pursue many different life paths, thus developing human capabilities.The most basic capabilities for human development are: to lead long and healthy lives, to be knowledgeable (e.g., to be educated), to have access to the resources and social services needed for a decent standard of living, and to be able to participate in the life of the community. Without these, many choices are simply not available, and many opportunities in life remain inaccessible.

    The Developmental Theories of:
    a. Sigmund Freud [Psychoanalytic Theory]
    This theory focuses on human mind -its organisation and operations. The human behaviour both conditions and results from how the mind is organised.
    b. Jean Piaget [Cognitive Development]
    According to psychologist Jean Piaget, children progress through a series of key stages of four key stages of cognitive development. Each stage is mark by shifts in how kids understand the world. Piaget believed that children are like “little scientist” and that they actively try to explore and make sense of world around them.
    Play is the answer to how anything new comes out. In our daily teaching always involve our students to play because learning is fun. Piaget did not view children’s intellectual development at quantitative process; that kids do not just add more information and knowledge to their existing knowledge as they get older. Instead, Piaget suggested that there is a qualitative change in how children think as they gradually process through these four stages. Sensory motor stage, Preoperational Stage, Concrete Operational Stage, and Formal Operational Stage.
    Educators must plan a developmentally appropriate curriculum that enhances their students’ logical and conceptual growth. Teachers must emphasize the critical role that experiences–or interactions with the surrounding environment–play in student learning.

    c. Eric Erikson [Psycho-Social Theory of Development]
    Life is a series of lessons and challenges which help us to grow. ‘psychosocial’ is the words psychological (mind) and social (relationships).It is genetically inevitable in shaping human development that occurs in all people.It is useful for any application involving personal awareness and development – of oneself or others.

    d. Lawrence Kohlberg [Moral Development]
    The people progressed in their moral reasoning in their bases for ethical behaviour through a series of stages. We also determine right and wrong conduct. It will provide the framework upon which we think and discuss in a reasoned way, and so evaluate, specific moral issues.

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  10. What is there in child development that needs organization and management?

    “Little Minds, Needs Great Love”

    “Where there is love, there is life”. Yes its true, by loving children there is a big chance that he/she will be fall apart.
    From the conception until a child was born, love is always there because you need to care for him/her so that the baby will be born healthy. As a child grows he/she always needs love and that love is always accompanied with caring and giving the things what they need. In early childhood their development is the foundation for educational success.Children with a happy life are the persons who are successful in their lives. Children with a sad life are the persons who are not successful in their lives. So early childhood is so important because if some milestones are not met during that time, those skills will be poorly developed until he/she become old.
    Parents should give lots of love and attention to their children, care for them, be them the priority. Because if children knows that they are the priority, there is a big chance that he/she may not turn into a bad person. But the big problem in our country is that there are many children who are suffering from great pain because their parents don’t really care for them.
    Teachers have also a great responsibility in nurturing the children, because teachers are one of the significant others of the child. Children can learn best if we show the love and care for them.
    Every child should have a caring adult in their lives and that’s not always a biological parent or a family member. It may be a friend or neighbor and the most important is we, AS TEACHERS.

    Liked by 1 person

  11. “ANG KINABUKASAN SA LIKOD NG MGA REHAS”

    Sa tuwing pinagmamasdan ko ang mga kabataan sa panahon ngayon, nababagabag ang aking damdamin. LUNGKOT at hindi SAYA ang aking nakikita at nararamdaman. Para bang ako’y nabibigatan. Madaming pagkakataon ko ng naitanong sa aking sarili, anu nga kaya ang magiging kinabukasan ng mga batang ito? Anu nga kaya ang hinaharap ng bawat musmos na ito?

    Mahirap ipaliwanag, mahirap unawain, kung bakit ganito sila ngayon? Bakit ganito ang kanilang sitwasyon. Isa lamang maikling pagbabahagi, ako’y lumaki sa isang komunidad na akala ko noong una ay isang paraiso, dala ng kamusmusan, paglalaro at pagsasaya ang aking pinagkakaabalahan. Ngunit dumating ang oras na ako’y unti-unting namulat sa lugar na aking kinakalakihan, di pala paraisong maituturing, lugar na kung saan, akala ko’y ligtas ako. Dumating ang mga oras o pagkakataon na ako mismo, sa musmos kong gulang, sa musmos kong pagiisip, nasaksihan ko ang mga karahasan na dapat hindi nakikita ng isang batang tulad ko noon. Mga pangyayari, na ngayon, masasabi ko na MAGKAKAROON ng MALAKING BAHAGI at MALAKING EPEKTO sa mga gagawin kong HAKBANG at DESISYON sa hinaharap.

    Ang mga pangyayaring ito, sa TOTOO lang akin ng nakasanayan, parang normal na sa akin. Na akala ko ni minsan ay hindi mangyayari o kakaharapin ng pamilya ko. NAGKAMALI AKO, isang MALAKING PAGKAKAMALI. Hindi ko maiwasan na magisip, na SISIHIN ang aking sarili, alam ko bilang panganay sa magkakapatid HINDI AKO NAGING PANGANAY SA KANILA, HINDI AKO NAGING MABUTING HALIMBAWA.

    Ang hirap pala, akala ko DI ako maapektuhan ng sobra, pero hindi eh, pamilya kami, kung anung problema ng isa, problema namin. ALAM KO DI NAMAN PERPEKTO ang magulang ko. May mga pagkukulang sila, na sana nung maliit pa kami ay napunuan ko sa aking mga kapatid. Minsan tuloy di ko rim maiwasan sisihin sila kung bakit nararanasan namin ngayon ang kinakaharap namin problema sa mga oras na ito at sa mga darating pang mga araw.

    Bakit nangyari ang mga nangyayari ngayon? Bakit dapat kaming humarap sa ganitong sitwasyon. Di na safe para sa mga anak ko ang inaakala kong lugar na magiging tahanan na namin habang kami ay may hininga. Walang nakakaalam kung anu nga ba ang plano ng Diyos sa buhay namin. Walang nakakaalam kung bakit nga ba nangyayari ito. Naiisip ko tuloy tuwing makakakita ako ng mga bata sa lansangan; mga batang nagmumura, mga batang nag-aaway na halos humantong na sa patayan, mga batang ni ayaw mag-aral, mga batang tingin ng iba patapon na ang buhay. . .NASAAN ANG MGA MAGULANG NA DAPAT GUMAGABAY SA MGA BATANG ITO, MGA MAGULANG NA SA UNA PALANG SILA NA ANG MAY RESPONSIBILIDAD SA MGA BATANG ITO.

    Bakit di nila kayang gabayan ang kanilang anak, Di tayo perpekto, pero pwede tayong maging responsableng mga magulang. Mga magulang na nagsisikap upang mabigyan ng magandang buhay ang kanilang mga anak. Mga magulang na may pananampalataya sa Diyos at ipinamumuhay ito.

    Henerasyon, tungo sa isa pang henerasyon, anu nga kaya ang kahaharapin pa nila. Sa panahon ngayon, mga responsableng magulang ang kailangan ng mga batang ito, responsableng mga guro at responsableng gobyerno. Na magbibigay sa kanila ng pagmamahal, tamang atensyon, respeto at proteksyon.

    Mahirap at masakit makita ang HINAHARAP O KINABUKASAN NG MGA BATANG ITO NA NASA LIKOD NA NG MGA REHAS.
    REHAS na magsisilbing limitasyon sa kanila upang paunlarin ang kanilang mga sarili, upang makita at maramdaman nila ang ganda ng buhay at mga bagay na kaya pa nilang gawin.

    Kung MAGAGABAYAN LAMANG SILA NG TAMA, kung may ISANG KALULUWA, KAHIT ISA LANG na magiging concern sa kanila, na MANGANGALAGA SA KANILA, baka sakaling makakita ulit ng liwanag ang mga batang ito sa kabila ng kadiliman na kanilang kinakaharap.

    DI ko kakayanin na makita na ang kinabukasan ng mga batang naging bahagi ng aking buhay ay nasa likod ng malamig at matigas na rehas.
    Lalo na ng aking mga mahal sa buhay.

    Sana hindi pa huli ang lahat, sana may magagawa pa ako, sana, sana, sana. . .

    Liked by 1 person

    1. wow, what a title !
      CONGRATULATIONS Ma’am Nez for COMPLETING YOUR FINAL EXAMS and thank you FOR FINISHING STRONG 🙂 God will bless you more & He will be with you until you’re DONE with your MASTERS DEGREE in Early Childhood Education 🙂

      Like

  12. 1. 1. The Situation and Rights of the Filipino Children and Adolescent
    Learners.
    We can see that the situation and the rights of the Filipino children and adolescent are affected by many factors and one of this is the poverty, despite the annual increase in the budget for basic education, fewer children are enrolling in school, why because some of them are obligated/force to work, has disability /illness, the distance from school and failure to cope with school work.
    In this situation, the rights of the children affected….. It is a challenge for us educators to make our class interesting and encouraging. As an educator, it’s important that you treat all your students with respect and get to know them as individual. BE sensitive
    1.2. The Issues of Human Development considering the developmental
    Task at Various Stage
    As a teacher who expect to meet the needs of his/her learner must be aware of the various developmental differences among his / her learners.
    In this way, we can identify to what stage of developmental task our learner is manifested.
    We can also know what to expect to them and what we can do to help them gain the developmental task they need to acquire.
    1.3 The Development Theories
    a. Sigmund Freud (Psycho Analytic Theory)
    Freud Theory view, personality development according to stages experienced in the growing years of infancy and adolescence. These stages are Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency and Genital .Referring to these stages as Psycho Sexual Development, he gave prominence to sexual feeling or emotion in describing the stages of development.
    b. Jean Piaget ( Cognitive Development )
    Piaget theory is the idea that children cognitive development follows a well defined sequence of stages whereby they acquire structures or schemes that enable them to deal with the world. Thus processes in cognitive development are defined into four stages Sensorimotor, Preoperational stage, Concrete operation and Formal operation stage . He give emphasized the active organizing of knowledge as the most important force in child’s development aside from maturation , experience with the environment .
    c. Erick Erickson (Psychosocial Theory of Development )
    Erick Erickson view, if a person is provided with social and psychological environment that is conducive to development, he will be able to deal adequately with the crisis and problem at each stage. If he fails to develop strengths and skill needed at each stage, he subsequently finds difficulty in dealing with psychosocial crises in the succeeding stages of development.
    d. Lawrence Kohlberg (Moral Development)
    He believes that children experienced related stages of moral development. While children are thought to be influenced by many individual groups much of their development is generated by maturational factors and is related to cognitive growth. Individuals are able to solve more complex moral problem as their cognitive development occurs. He is concern in children moral judgement than on moral action.
    In addition knowing the theories, helps each of us to be an effective teacher…..right!!!

    Liked by 1 person

  13. 1. 1. The Situation and Rights of the Filipino Children and Adolescent Learners.
    We can see that the situation and the rights of the Filipino children and adolescent are affected by many factors and one of this is the poverty, despite the annual increase in the budget for basic education, fewer children are enrolling in school, why because some of them are obligated/force to work, has disability /illness, the distance from school and failure to cope with school work.
    In this situation, the rights of the children affected….. It is a challenge for us educators to make our class interesting and encouraging. As an educator, it’s important that you treat all your students with respect and get to know them as individual. Be sensitive
    1.2. The Issues of Human Development considering the developmental Task at Various Stage
    As a teacher who expect to meet the needs of his/her learner must be aware of the various developmental differences among his / her learners.
    In this way, we can identify to what stage of developmental task our learner is manifested.
    We can also know what to expect to them and what we can do to help them gain the developmental task they need to acquire.
    1.3 The Development Theories
    a. Sigmund Freud (Psycho Analytic Theory)
    Freud Theory view, personality development according to stages experienced in the growing years of infancy and adolescence. These stages are Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency and Genital .Referring to these stages as Psycho Sexual Development, he gave prominence to sexual feeling or emotion in describing the stages of development.
    b. Jean Piaget ( Cognitive Development )
    Piaget theory is the idea that children cognitive development follows a well defined sequence of stages whereby they acquire structures or schemes that enable them to deal with the world. Thus processes in cognitive development are defined into four stages Sensorimotor, Preoperational stage, Concrete operation and Formal operation stage . He give emphasized the active organizing of knowledge as the most important force in child’s development aside from maturation , experience with the environment .
    c. Erick Erickson (Psychosocial Theory of Development )
    Erick Erickson view, if a person is provided with social and psychological environment that is conducive to development, he will be able to deal adequately with the crisis and problem at each stage. If he fails to develop strengths and skill needed at each stage, he subsequently finds difficulty in dealing with psychosocial crises in the succeeding stages of development.
    d. Lawrence Kohlberg (Moral Development)
    He believes that children experienced related stages of moral development. While children are thought to be influenced by many individual groups much of their development is generated by maturational factors and is related to cognitive growth. Individuals are able to solve more complex moral problem as their cognitive development occurs. He is concern in children moral judgement than on moral action.
    In addition knowing the theories, helps each of us to be an effective teacher…..right!!!

    Liked by 1 person

  14. 1.1 The Situation & Rights of Filipino Children & Adolescent Learners [

    In the Philippine a child is someone who has not reached the age of 18.The Phil. Constitution says that the right to life must be protected.Every Filipino child has the right to be protected by adults and by the state of Government against abuse.Every Filipino, including a child,has the right such as the right to life, liberty, or property.They must live with good environment and the best protection we can give to them. Because they are gift from God we must treasure them and protect them so they may enjoy life and live according to what will make them happy, contented and peacefully. We as a parents we need to give the best thing we can give for our child. Just like what God did for his children because they are precious to God…

    1.2 The Issues on Human Development considering the Developmental Tasks at Various Stages
    From womb up to giving birth the parents has an important part to have a well developed child. By taking good care for each other, love and protection is very important task. From the food they eat, sleep and even the time that we can give to them. Since from the time they were came they are aware of everything. They need love and comfort. Who can give such love and comfort? It should start from the parents…

    1.3 The Developmental Theories

    a.Freud’s redefinition of sexuality to include its infantile forms led him to formulate the Oedipus complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytical theory. His analysis of dreams as wish-fulfillments provided him with models for the clinical analysis of symptom formation and the mechanisms of repression as well as for elaboration of his theory of the unconscious as an agency disruptive of conscious states of mind.Freud postulated the existence of libido, an energy with which mental processes and structures are invested and which generates erotic attachments, and a death drive, the source of repetition, hate, aggression and neurotic guilt.

    b. Jean Piaget [Cognitive Development]
    His view of how children’s minds work and develop has been enormously influential, particularly in educational theory. His particular insight was the role of maturation (simply growing up) in children’s increasing capacity to understand their world: they cannot undertake certain tasks until they are psychologically mature enough to do so. His research has spawned a great deal more, much of which has undermined the detail of his own, but like many other original investigators, his importance comes from his overall vision.

    He proposed that children’s thinking does not develop entirely smoothly: instead, there are certain points at which it “takes off” and moves into completely new areas and capabilities. He saw these transitions as taking place at about 18 months, 7 years and 11 or 12 years. This has been taken to mean that before these ages children are not capable (no matter how bright) of understanding things in certain ways, and has been used as the basis for scheduling the school curriculum. Whether or not should be the case is a different matter.

    c.According to Erickson’s psychosocial stages, people in middle adulthood face a conflict he called Generativity vs. Stagnation. During this time, the person is concerned with passing something on to the next generation. For instance a parent raising their child and instilling them with the morals that that child will one day use. Generativity is basically completed with care for others and this could also be done through works in the community. Stagnation on the other hand is a lack of care for others, a sense of selfishness at this stage in life. This person is either unable or unwilling to make a productive move for society or others in their lives.

    d. Lawrence Kohlberg [Moral Development]

    Kohlberg was not interested so much in the answer to the question of whether Heinz was wrong or right, but in the reasoning for each participant’s decision. The responses were then classified into various stages of reasoning in his theory of moral development.

    1.4 What is there in CHILD DEVELOPMENT that needs ORGANIZATION & MANAGEMENT?
    It is very important to every individual to give importance to every child’s life. ” There is no school for being a Parent” with this we can be guided and gained more information on how we can be a good parents and citizens to every child’s life…TO GOD BE THE GLORY!!!

    Liked by 1 person

  15. A teacher in student`s life..
    Early growing years in child’s life are most crucial, it is important to be guided by a mentor who understands and guides him towards his better future. Parents are the first mentors for any child and then there are teachers, who further develop his skills and prepare him for his challenging tomorrow.
    A teacher as second parents, entry into the child’s life comes at a very important juncture, when the child is learning to adapt to a new change of his life which is school. The introduction of school comes along with the introduction of teacher; his first step into the school life becomes his first point of contact with his teacher.
    Positive attitude of a teacher makes a child positive response. A positive influence from a teacher has a great impact on child during his growing years and even after it.He also starts recognizing the concept of school with the image of a teacher in his mind. So students never forget their teacher at their young age, your expressions and actions and even the way you act, ‘lalo naka pag nagsasaway gayang-gaya nila”, they are great imitator.
    Children are like clay in a potter’s hands. Just as a potter gives a desired shape to the clay in his hands, so do children become what their parents make them. This is primarily the reason why the early growing years in a child’s life are the most crucial and lay the foundation for developing their nature, personality and the individual self.
    A teacher after induction of child in the school; under its umbrella nurtures and influences the child.Teachers task involves pushing the child to do his best while at the same time make him learn in an interesting and a creative manner especially in reading and writing when a child didn`t know how to read or write.They asked this question,” Sino ang teacher mo? feeling mo tuloy wala ka ng ginawa sa buong taon na pagtuturo”.
    These days, more and more children live in a household where both parents are working and often, such children rely heavily on their teachers for help, advice and guidance. Some parents said “andyan naman si teacher siya na bahala sa anak ko matututo din yan”There is no denying the fact that the role of a teacher in a student’s life is very crucial right from the time when a child joins a day care centre to the stage when he / she takes a step forward towards establishing a professional career.
    As some of the most influential role models for developing students, teachers are responsible for more than just academic enrichment. If you want to be a great educator, you must connect with your pupils and reach them on multiple levels, because the best teachers are committed to their students’ well-being both inside and outside the classroom. By forging strong relationships, educators are able to affect virtually every aspect of their students’ lives, teaching them the important life lessons that will help them succeed beyond challenges. It is not an exaggeration to say that a great teacher can change a student’s life. There are an endless amount of stories that attest to the benefits of a strong relationship between an educator and pupil
    It is not always easy to change a student’s life, which is why it takes a great teacher to do so.
    “A great teacher takes a hand, opens a mind and touches a heart.
    WE ARE GREAT TEACHERS!

    Liked by 1 person

  16. 2. What is there in child Development that needs organization and management?

    Children “Creator and Shapers of Nation’s Tomorrow”

    The wealth of our nation lies in the kind children we have today. It, therefore, become task of every nation and every society to nurture a strong, healthy and intellectual children. It is the responsibility of each individual, the adult to direct the children in desire direction. They have to train to use their talents and abilities in productive ways. Our society should provide children with the RIGHT kind of education that will create great professionals excelling in their fields but also good human beings. The government should also address the social evils like child labour, drug addiction, beggary, child abuse that hamper the proper the development of children.
    In addition the teacher must be aware of various developmental differences among children, this certainly help teachers like me to know what to expect of children and what approximate ages a certain pattern of behaviour may appear or expected to appear. And to those parent, it is important that you educate yourself about child development stages by reading child development article
    This will prove that our children are capable to gain knowledge and skills.
    All they need is right guidance and training coming from their parents and teachers and of course a supportive environment. It will surely lead our nation to greater heights. We can proudly say that children are the creators and shapers of our nations tomorrow…..

    Liked by 1 person

  17. 1.1 The Situation and The Rights of Filipino Children and Adolescent learners
    I would like to relate this topic to the short film “ Canvass in our Society” in which the rights of the Filipino children is definitely not given and recognized, though the Philippines has signed and ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child( UNICEF), many government policies and practices do not include or recognized children.
    Every child is precious and is a “Gift” to the world.We, teachers must campaign this advocacy to see every child as distinct individuals, to treat every child with dignity and to prepare them in their future.
    How do we see a child born in the slums? How do we treat a child from a dysfunctional and poor family? What can we do in order to help these kids have a brighter future? This is the very cry of our hearts. We cannot take it any longer sitting down and watching children being used and abused, we need to do something as teachers. We need to put our faith in action and demonstrate our love for God through service to humankind. Now is the time to help them, to lead them, to nurture them and to give them an opportunity to have a right start in life.
    1.2 The Issues on Human Development Considering the Developmental Task at Various Stages
    Is your behavior more influenced by genetics or environmental influences? Is your personality the result of traits you inherited or has it been shaped by your life experiences? These are the significant issues in human development. For example, when a person achieves tremendous academic success, did they do so because they are genetically predisposed to be successful or is it a result of an enriched environment? If a man abuses his wife and kids, is it because he was born with violent tendencies or is it something he learned by observing his own parents behavior?
    We, teachers are still the best contributor of every child’s personality regardless the issues in “nature vs nurture” in human development. We can make them what they want to be by giving the right start.

    1.3 The Developmental Theories of :
    A. Sigmund Freud- Sigmund Freud’s work and theories helped shape views of childhood, personality, memory, sexuality and therapy. Freud’s theories were enormously influential, However, his ideas have become interwoven into the fabric of our culture, with terms such as “Freudian slip,” “repression” and “denial” “ Fixation”. In Psychoanalytic theory of Freud that early experiences play a large role in personality development and continue to influence behavior later in life. So what happens during each stage? What if a person fails to progress through a stage completely or favorably? If these psychosexual stages are completed successfully, a healthy personality is the result. If certain issues are not resolved at the appropriate stage, fixations can occur. A fixation is a persistent focus on an earlier psychosexual stage. Until this conflict is resolved, the individual will remain “stuck” in this stage. In this situation, we teachers plays big role in resolving the children or students fixations as long as they are still in school.
    B. Jean Piaget- Proponent of Cognitive Development Theory. Piaget was the first psychologist to make a systematic study of cognitive development. His contributions include a theory of cognitive child development, detailed observational studies of cognition in children, and a series of simple but ingenious tests to reveal different cognitive abilities. According to Piaget, children are born with a very basic mental structure (genetically inherited and evolved) on which all subsequent learning and knowledge is based. To Piaget, cognitive development was a progressive reorganization of mental processes as a result of biological maturation and environmental experience. Children construct an understanding of the world around them, then experience discrepancies between what they already know and what they discover in their environment.
    C. Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development. He believed that personality develops in a series of stages , Erikson’s theory describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan. One of the main elements of Erikson’s psychosocial stage theory is the development of ego identity. Ego identity is the conscious sense of self that we develop through social interaction. According to Erikson, our ego identity is constantly changing due to new experiences and information we acquire in our daily interactions with others. Erikson also believed that a sense of competence motivates behaviors and actions. Each stage in Erikson’s theory is concerned with becoming competent in an area of life. If the stage is handled well, the person will feel a sense of mastery, which is sometimes referred to as ego strength or ego quality . If the stage is managed poorly, the person will emerge with a sense of inadequacy.
    He believed people experience a conflict that serves as a turning point in development. In Erikson’s view, these conflicts are centered on either developing a psychological quality or failing to develop that quality. During these times, the potential for personal growth is high, but so is the potential for failure.
    D. Lawrence Kohlberge in Moral Development Theory- this theory holds that moral reasoning, the basis for ethical behavior, has six identifiable developmental stages, each more adequate at responding to moral dilemmas than its predecessor. Kohlberg followed the development of moral judgment far beyond the ages studied earlier by Piaget, who also claimed that logic and morality develop through constructive stages. Expanding on Piaget’s work, Kohlberg determined that the process of moral development was principally concerned with justice, and that it continued throughout the individual’s lifetime, Kohlberg’s scale is about how people justify behaviors and his stages are not a method of ranking how moral someone’s behavior is. There should however be a correlation between how someone scores on the scale and how they behave, and the general hypothesis is that moral behavior is more responsible, consistent and predictable from people at higher levels.

    Liked by 1 person

  18. 2. What is there in child development that needs organization and management?

    “SIKAT” ( Shapers of Individuals Knowledge And Talents)

    When I was a little girl I would play ” teacher” to neighboors who were my age. It gave me a certain kind of happiness when my “pupils” would respond to my questions. I would not even know and care if their answers were correct. I just loved to say ” very Good!” to their every answer.
    Being a teacher is really incomparable. It entails great sacrifice but whose eventual reward is priceless.We, teachers wake up and prepare early just to be in school early. In school, we do not just simply stay there to teach, care, and look after our school chidren in the best way we can, but we strive to touch and change their lives.
    Being a teacher is not always abed of roses., It is but a normal to have a ” down” moment.It happens when my pupil fails to read and comprehend and solve simple Math problems. During those times, I always think instantaneously that each child is unique, and that there are inevitably fast, average or slow learners. The subsequent approach toward the pupils in each case would always depend on me and the kind of strategy that I would employ. That is a part of the challenge. I would exhaust all means if only to improve the performance of my pupils. It is when I succeed in having the pupils read, comprehend and become literatethat I am rewarded with great satisfying feelings.
    I believe that I, a teacher , the molder of very delicate minds, can make big difference in my pupil’s lives. This is my calling, I am determined to always put my best foot forward….everyday..for as long as I am a “SIKAT” ( Shapers of individuals Knowledge And Talents)..for as long as We Are Teachers.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. wow, this is a superb article ! CONGRATULATIONS Ma’am Mylene for COMPLETING YOUR FINAL EXAMS and FOR FINISHING STRONG 🙂 God will bless you more & He will be with you until you’re DONE with your MASTERS DEGREE in Early Childhood Education 🙂

      Like

  19. 2. What is there in CHILD DEVELOPMENT that needs ORGANIZATION & MANAGEMENT?

    THE REAL STAR ON EARTH

    One day in school, while I’m teaching, I saw one of my pupils is crying. Then I asked him, “Bakit ka umiiyak Alan?” Then he answered, “Teacher, sabi po kasi niya, mataba daw si Mama” then continues crying. Sounds cute, right? Away bata ika nga.”

    Some of parents today don’t observe how their children value them. They will fight just to prove that their parents are good. Kids show their love in different ways that you almost don’t notice them. But for them it means something.

    That’s the task of every teacher, to save those unnoticed children, and to be the bright star of their life. Teacher is a part of the foundation of every child’s life, they could possibly “break” or “make” them and that is an immense responsibility.

    Unending support of the teacher is needed for the total development of a child. Teachers conduct home visitation, case study, and research to help those pupils needed them most.
    ]\\
    Not giving up on parents is a big factor. Teacher needs a bucket of patience for those parents that hardly understand their advocacy. We all know that despite the sacrifices and predicaments we face, there is always the happiness that comes with unselfish service, the giving of wisdom and sharing of love to others are indeed priceless and genuine rewards.

    Our learners serve as our little stars in our lives. But for them, TEACHERS ARE THEIR REAL STARS.

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  20. “MY GOAL IS MY ROLE”

    Children nowadays are very intuits to learn, discover, and apply what they want to know, they are very observant to the real situation, they have lots of questions and clueless sometimes what is happening to the world, but then we are one of the significant others of their lives, We can easily teach students if we starts the good things in ourselves. Let’s looked back and reflect what are things we considered as our good memories that help a lot to become what we are today. Let nourish ourselves with positive outlook in life, concentrate whatever we do, focus our goal and analyzed all situations before we decide. According to the source that I read ” A child is a mirror of a family” what the children learn from home it reflect to his/her attitudes. A family plays important role to a child, in the family we learn how can we adopt to the reality, how can we interact with others and be ourselves. Moreover the best way to have a happy family is to connect each other by means of bible sharing, tapping each member to lean on, giving extra time ,effort and of course presence most especially to the situations need most.
    In line with this in a school set up it is necessary to know your students profile, believing all student can learn,nurturing them with love and wisdom, give them extraordinary care and be part of their lives which is remarkable in their minds. Last, Teacher’s Day, I was surprised because my previous students greeted me and says ” Hindi ka namin, nakakalimutan Ma’am” A simple sayings but have a powerful meaning which make me cry. In our school we have a “Adopt a school Program” each teachers has adoptees an intervention program to guide and help children which has potentials. Our goal is to assist him/her through academic skills, financially assistance and love them. Another program in our school we have this ” Galing Mo Kids Program” tie up with Hans On Manila, their goal is to enhance the learning potential of students in four various subject areas such as: Science, Math, English and Civics; to enhance their leadership skills, creativity and cognitive skills; and to develop values such as love for the country, honesty and integrity, through the continuous mentoring of volunteers and proactive activities. I’m lucky to be part of it as a teacher coordinator. Then we have also ANGELS ( Agent of New Generation Environment Leaders and Savior/ PAMS ( Pembo Angels Magic Spot) which aims is to maintain the cleanliness of each zone to our baranggay in this program the child become nature lover. Project Feed/ BOWLS ( Brain Operates With Loaded Stomach) / OMG ( Oh, My Gulay) in order to cope up with the lessons what we do is to feed the malnourished students.
    There are many ways to help children to grow well and be feel they loved, It is a matter of acceptance with a big responsibility to mold them with flying colors. We have lots of ideas, theories, strategies but then the best way we can do is to “apply” today, tomorrow and continuously like a cycle.

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